The air conditioning system in surgical zones or areas must be strictly independent from other air conditioning areas, there can be no connections to intermediate areas between them, each surgical room must have its own line of breathing and extraction of air conditioning, as well as the systems of purification such as filters and cleaning with bactericides.
The outlets of the air conditioning system must be at least 9 meters away from another area of the clinic or building, likewise verify the direction of the air to avoid the transfer of any agent. Breathing air intakes must have the same proportion of 9 meters of separation from any other external agent, such as air outlets, combustion towers or manufacturing companies with the use of chemical agents and a minimum height of 2.00 meters above their main level.
Requirements of an operating room or critical area
Such a system should have the following characteristics
Dilution: Decrease the concentration of a chemical in the environment.
Filtration: For the prevention and control of infections.
Temperature: The main standards that evaluate the maximum and minimum temperature and humidity of an operating room are UNE-100713:2005, which suggests 22 to 26 °C, and ASHRAE, which establishes it between 20 and 24 °C.
Humidity: According to UNE-100713:2005, it must be kept between 45 and 55 percent; while ASHRAE suggests between 30 and 60 percent.
Pressure: It is the force per unit area exerted by a liquid or gas perpendicular to said surface. Within a hospital, this must be positive; that is, it will be above atmospheric pressure.
Due to the possibilities of dispersion of bacteria and viruses motivated by the movement of patients in the operating rooms, they must provide movement patterns that nullify or minimize the spread of contaminants, adding the filters and pre-filters in each one of them, since they must there is a movement of clean air in polluted areas. And thus the spread of infectious agents is prevented in a bacterial, viral, temperature or humidity or microbial agent.
In operating rooms or critical areas, such as sterilization areas or intensive care units, the quality levels for air filtration must be at the maximum level, and this is known as Absolute, since it allows a filtration level of high purity, added to a positive pressure that prevents contaminated air from entering when a door is opened in the room used.
Filtration systems for surgical rooms can have different parameters, they can be only with absolute EPA filters, such as pre-filters, also with washable or rigid bag systems, or with unique HEPA systems such as absolute filtration, and their removal of bacteria is from pre filters between 60 to 80% and in Absolutes up to 99.99% of the bacteria to be removed. According to the ASHRAE/ASHE/ANSI certification tables, there are different qualifications depending on the type of medical or surgical unit or the filtration capacity.